They are a set of heterogeneous disorders that may impair the ability to read, write, calculate, listening and verbal expression. They include: dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, dysorthography. They are specific, because the disorder only affects some skill, leaving intact the general intellectual functioning; they are evolutionary, because they vary with age of the subject. The main indicator is a discrepancy between general intelligence (tailored to age and training) and skill in specific domain (deficit).
These disorders usually occur in school age and may include severe difficulties in reading (Dyslexia, go to the dedicated page), in written expression (Dysorthography, Dysgraphia), in calculus (Dyscalculia) and in learning in general. These difficulties can occur individually or in an associated way and, usually, teachers are the first to notice. If a child has one of these disorders, it does not mean that he or she is less intelligent or promising than others.
It is important for parents to collaborate with teachers and consult an experienced professional, to understand the causes and any emotional factors that affect the child’s abilities. In this way it is possible to “plan” an appropriate educational program and the appropriate treatment in relation to the specific case, to alleviate or prevent the discomfort and suffering of the child.
In cases of Specific Learning Disorders (LSD), Dialogic Reading can play an important role in supporting the work planned by the specialist. In fact, a large scientific literature, especially beginning from the 2000s, has demonstrated the effectiveness of this method, in support of specialist activities. Vocabulary training, guided reading, stimulation of discussion, understanding and interpretation of the story shared with the parent and / or teacher, are all factors that contribute beyond any reasonable doubt to growth and development of the child.
Dyscalculia – We speak of Calculus disorder or Dyscalculia when the ability to make calculations is much lower than the average, at the age and level of school education received. The child may have a high IQ, but has difficulty counting numbers, cannot learn multiplication tables and understand mathematical concepts, does not recognize mathematical and arithmetic symbols and cannot group objects of the same species or category. Other symptoms are also the difficulty in paying attention and copying figures and objects correctly. The disorder often appears together with other learning disorders, such as reading or written expression disorder. The causes of Dyscalculia can be of different kinds and range from suffering at the time of birth, such as asphyxia, to neurological damage and injuries. The origin of the disorder can also come from the family (e.g. in the presence of first degree relatives and parents with Learning Disorders), emotional or related to the type of school education. These difficulties can be overcome with personalized courses, which are very effective in increasing the performance of children. Dialogic Reading has proved to be a valid support to the work planned by the specialist in numerous cases of Dyscalculia.
Written Expression Disorder – Written expression disorder is a learning disability in writing. It doesn’t involve technical skills like spelling and handwriting, difficulty in those areas are sometimes referred to as Dysgraphia. Instead, it involves having trouble expressing thoughts in writing. Children with this disorder have difficulty learning to express themselves correctly in writing, with respect to their age and school education received. Children with this disorder also have difficulty organizing texts in a coherent way. The disorder is independent of the child’s intelligence and is common along with other specific learning disorders. For example, the disorder occurs together with problems in the expression of language and perceptual and motor deficits.
Dysgraphia is a disorder that involves technical skills like spelling and handwriting. Children commit errors in grammar and punctuation and in the subdivision of the syllables that make up the words.; the writing is bumpy and difficult to read.