Behavioral outlook

In a recent 2008 research conducted by Paul L. Morgan and Catherine R. Meier, it is stated that “Young children entering school with poor oral vocabulary skills may be doubly disadvantaged. Their poor oral vocabulary skills will likely impede their attempts to become proficient readers while also possibly increasing the frequency of their problem behaviors. Dialogic reading is a scientifically validated shared storybook reading intervention that is known to boost at-risk children’s oral vocabulary skills. Use of DR is one potential way to help children avoid both later reading failure and the negative outcomes associated with poor behavior.” The two researchers add, citing a 2000 research by Kaiser, Hancock, Cai, Foster and Hester and numerous other recent researches, that poor oral vocabulary skills and problematic behavior constantly coexist and that the correlation between the two problems persists as the child grows, as the research of Griffith, Rogers-Adkinson, and Cusick (1997) also demonstrates.

Why do poor language skills and problematic behavior often occur together? One hypothesis is that poor oral vocabulary skills make it more difficult for children to use the so-called pragmatic language, thus leading to more aggressive behaviors or refusal of involvement. Pragmatic language is the ability to establish and sustain topics of conversation, match one’s level of communication with that of others and adapt one’s communication to listeners to make it understandable (Norris, 1995). Poor pragmatic language skills could adversely affect a child’s behavioral and social decision making (McDonough, 1989).

Researchers have found a connection between poor pragmatic language proficiency and behavioral or social skills deficits. Both Bain (2001) and Cohen et al. (1993) found that language deficiencies contribute to children’s difficulties in interacting with peers and adults and therefore lead to the development of social skills deficits. Fujiki, Brinton, Morgan, and Hart (1999) observed that children with language disabilities were much more likely to be less involved and avoid peer interactions than children who exhibited average language development. The researchers also found that language deficits in young children almost always predict later behavioral difficulties.

As Paul L. Morgan and Catherine R. Meier explain in the research cited above, “A well-established method of improving a child’s oral vocabulary skills is to frequently read children’s books with him or her. Frequent shared reading of children’s books leads to vocabulary growth and, in turn, success in reading and other academic areas (e.g. Bus, van IJzendoorn, & Pellegrini, 1995; Crain-Thoreson & Dale, 1992; Debaryshe , 1993; Senechal, LeFevre, Hudson, & Lawson, 1996; Whitehurst et al., 1999). A particularly well-validated reading process for shared children’s books is Dialogic Reading.

The benefits of Dialogic Reading, from a child’s behavioral point of view, are particularly evident. Children learn a new vocabulary through active involvement (as shown by Bloom’s research, 2002) and exposure to new words in expressive and meaningful ways in their family and / or school environment (study by Hart & Risley, 1995). When young children participate in Dialogic Reading together with a parent, they are offered the opportunity to develop expressive language through a new vocabulary modulated by the parent’s style, through a greater number of questions and answers (study by DeBaryshe, 1995).

The use of Dialogic Reading both as a habit at home by parents and as an educational tool in the classroom by teachers, ensures children the social experience of listening to others, taking turns in talking and getting to know their peers and / or parents, share topics, thoughts and imagination with them. Using Dialogic Reading with well selected quality books, provides teachers in the classroom as well as parents at home with thew opportunity to promote and stimulate socio-emotional skills.

The development of expressive language is particularly important for the child, in fact the practice of Dialogic Reading accustoms the child to broaden their vocabulary, to elaborate more precisely ideas and thoughts around a topic, to develop a coherent interpretation of the context surrounding the story. These notions lead the child to a more balanced and harmonious behavior with their peers, taking into account others’ point of view and leading the child to find a correct mediation between differences. All this translates into basically more balanced behaviors and a decrease of extreme phenomena such as, for example, imposing attitudes, submissive attitudes, refusal to understand, excessive anxieties and fears, detachment from the group due to misunderstanding.

Further reading here:

Promoting Emergent Literacy and Social–Emotional Learning Through Dialogic Reading, 2011, Brooke Graham Doyle, Wendie Bramwell

Juli-Anna Aerila, Johanna Lähteelä, Merja Anitta Kauppinen, Mari Siipola, Holistic Literature Education as an Effective Tool for Social-Emotional Learning, Handbook of Research on Supporting Social and Emotional Development Through Literacy Education, 10.4018/978-1-7998-7464-5.ch002, (26-49), (2021).

Brittany Ann Garling, Michelle Huntress, Jill Siefken, Jacalyn S. Swink, Tessa Yackle, English Language Learners and Mainstream Instruction to Enhance SEL Literacy, Handbook of Research on Supporting Social and Emotional Development Through Literacy Education, 10.4018/978-1-7998-7464-5.ch017, (368-389), (2021).

İlkay Ulutaş, Kübra Engin, Emine Bozkurt Polat, Strategies to Develop Emotional Intelligence in Early Childhood, The Science of Emotional Intelligence [Working Title], 10.5772/intechopen.90978, (2021).

Daniel Guilbert, Naomi Sweller, Penny Van Bergen, Emotion and gesture effects on narrative recall in young children and adults, Applied Cognitive Psychology, 10.1002/acp.3815, 35, 4, (873-889), (2021).

Robyn Jorgensen, Mellony Graven, Robyn Jorgensen, Mellony Graven, Exploring Numeracy-Rich Rhymes and Stories, Merging Numeracy with Literacy Practices for Equity in Multilingual Early Year Settings, 10.1007/978-981-16-7767-0, (61-86), (2021).

Robyn Jorgensen, Mellony Graven, Robyn Jorgensen, Mellony Graven, Designing and Creating Maths-Rich Storybooks, Games and Related Activities, Merging Numeracy with Literacy Practices for Equity in Multilingual Early Year Settings, 10.1007/978-981-16-7767-0, (87-115), (2021).

Sierrah Harris, Amanda J. Owen Van Horne, Turn the Page, Speech-Language Pathologists: Adequate, Authentic, and Accurate Representation as a Consideration in the Selection of Picture Books for Use in Treatment, Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 10.1044/2021_LSHSS-20-00155, 52, 4, (955-966), (2021).

Jui-Teng Li, Fuhui Tong, Beverly J. Irby, Rafael Lara-Alecio, Hector Rivera, The effects of four instructional strategies on English learners’ English reading comprehension: A meta-analysis, Language Teaching Research, 10.1177/1362168821994133, (136216882199413), (2021).

Kristi Cheyney-Collante, Twenty-five books a day: Literacy events in subsidized childcare, Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 10.1177/14687984211010273, (146879842110102), (2021).

Hanife ESEN AYGÜN, Çiğdem ŞAHİN TAŞKIN, Identifying Social-Emotional Learning Skills in Turkish Language Curriculum, Ankara Universitesi Egitim Bilimleri Fakultesi Dergisi, 10.30964/auebfd.797377, (205-224), (2021).

Asimina Vasalou, Sara Kalantari, Natalia Kucirkova, Yvonne Vezzoli, Designing for oral storytelling practices at home: A parental perspective, International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 10.1016/j.ijcci.2020.100214, 26, (100214), (2020).

Tatiana Yasmeen Hill, Natalia Palacios, Melissa Lucas, Stephanie Dugan, Amanda K. Kibler, Judy Paulick, Latinx Siblings’ Social Emotional Support During Shared Reading, Handbook of Research on Advancing Language Equity Practices With Immigrant Communities, 10.4018/978-1-7998-3448-9.ch011, (194-218), (2020).

Yvonne Vezzoli, Sara Kalantari, Natalia Kucirkova, Asimina Vasalou, undefined, Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 10.1145/3313831.3376696, (1), (2020).

Kristin M. Murphy, Amy L. Cook, Mixed Reality Simulations, Next Generation Digital Tools and Applications for Teaching and Learning Enhancement, 10.4018/978-1-7998-1770-3.ch001, (1-15), (2020).

Elena Jiménez-Pérez, Almudena Barrientos-Báez, David Caldevilla-Domínguez, José Gómez-Galán, Influence of Mothers’ Habits on Reading Skills and Emotional Intelligence of University Students: Relationships in the Social and Educational Context, Behavioral Sciences, 10.3390/bs10120187, 10, 12, (187), (2020).

Ergün YURTBAKAN, Etkileşimli Okuma: Bir İçerik Analizi, Ana Dili Eğitimi Dergisi, 10.16916/aded.642138, 8, 1, (135-156), (2020).

June O’Sullivan, Replacing a reading scheme with dialogic reading: an action research case study in 15 London nurseries, International Journal of Early Years Education, 10.1080/09669760.2020.1754172, (1-16), (2020).

Şule TEPETAŞ CENGİZ, Mazhar BAL, Okul Öncesi Dönemde Evde Okuma Süreci: Aile Beklentilerine Yönelik Bir Durum Çalışması, Ana Dili Eğitimi Dergisi, 10.16916/aded.786846, (1311-1331), (2020).

Irem Korucu, Ellen Litkowski, Sara A. Schmitt, Examining Associations between the Home Literacy Environment, Executive Function, and School Readiness, Early Education and Development, 10.1080/10409289.2020.1716287, (1-19), (2020).

Natalia Kucirkova, Rosie Flewitt, Understanding parents’ conflicting beliefs about children’s digital book reading, Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 10.1177/1468798420930361, (146879842093036), (2020).

Stephanie Githa Nadarajah, Peder Walz Pedersen, Camilla Gisela Hansen Schnatterbeck, Roman Arberg, Hendrik Knoche, What Is the Cat Doing? Supporting Adults in Using Interactive E-Books for Dialogic Reading, The Interplay of Data, Technology, Place and People for Smart Learning, 10.1007/978-3-319-92022-1_13, (146-158), (2019).

Kevin M. Storer, Stacy M. Branham, undefined, Proceedings of the 2019 on Designing Interactive Systems Conference, 10.1145/3322276.3322374, (385), (2019).

Elena M. Venegas, “We Listened to Each Other”: Socioemotional Growth in Literature Circles, The Reading Teacher, 10.1002/trtr.1822, 73, 2, (149-159), (2019).

Sharon Z. Sacks, Cheryl Kamei-Hannan, Jane N. Erin, Lizbeth Barclay, Debbie Sitar, Social Experiences of Beginning Braille Readers in Literacy Activities: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings of the ABC Braille Study, Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 10.1177/0145482X0910301011, 103, 10, (680-693), (2019).

Astrid Wirth, Simone C. Ehmig, Nadja Drescher, Sabrina Guffler, Frank Niklas, Facets of the Early Home Literacy Environment and Children’s Linguistic and Socioemotional Competencies, Early Education and Development, 10.1080/10409289.2019.1706826, (1-18), (2019).

Janet L Towell, Lydia Bartram, Susan Morrow, Susannah L Brown, Reading to babies: Exploring the beginnings of literacy, Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 10.1177/1468798419846199, (146879841984619), (2019).

Marie-Lyne Smadja, Dorit Aram, Margalit Ziv, The Impact of Variations in Text Presence in Children’s Storybooks on Preschool Teachers’ Discourse, Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 10.1080/02568543.2019.1577774, (1-18), (2019).

Stephanie Kozak, Holly Recchia, Reading and the Development of Social Understanding: Implications for the Literacy Classroom, The Reading Teacher, 10.1002/trtr.1760, 72, 5, (569-577), (2018).

Pamela W Garner, Tameka S Parker, Young children’s picture-books as a forum for the socialization of emotion, Journal of Early Childhood Research, 10.1177/1476718X18775760, 16, 3, (291-304), (2018).

Frank Niklas, Caroline Cohrssen, Collette Tayler, Making a difference to children’s reasoning skills before school-entry: The contribution of the home learning environment, Contemporary Educational Psychology, 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2018.06.001, 54, (79-88), (2018).

Jianhua Xu, Pianran Wang, Brian W. Sturm, Yingying Wu, How preschool children think about libraries: Evidence from six children’s libraries in China, Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 10.1177/0961000618818887, (096100061881888), (2018).

Zhuqing Su, Yifang Wang, Yadong Sun, Jinhong Ding, Zhuoya Ma, Reading Independently and Reading With a Narrator: Eye Movement Patterns of Children With Different Receptive Vocabularies, Frontiers in Psychology, 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01753, 9, (2018).

Hui-Yun Sung, Adult mediation of preschool children’s use of mobile technologies in public libraries in Taiwan: A socio-cultural perspective, Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 10.1177/0961000617709055, 51, 1, (196-207), (2017).

John S. Hutton, Kieran Phelan, Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, Jonathan Dudley, Mekibib Altaye, Tom DeWitt, Scott K. Holland, Shared Reading Quality and Brain Activation during Story Listening in Preschool-Age Children, The Journal of Pediatrics, 10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.08.037, 191, (204-211.e1), (2017).

Amber J. Godwin, Mary Margaret Capraro, William H. Rupley, Robert M. Capraro, Metasynthesis of Factors Contributing to Children’s Communication Development: Influence on Reading and Mathematics, Child Development Research, 10.1155/2017/4506098, 2017, (1-10), (2017).

Amy L. Cook, Meghan R. Silva, Laura A. Hayden, Lauren Brodsky, Robin Codding, Exploring the Use of Shared Reading as a Culturally Responsive Counseling Intervention to Promote Academic and Social-Emotional Development, Journal of Child and Adolescent Counseling, 10.1080/23727810.2017.1280327, 3, 1, (14-29), (2017).

Mellony Graven, Alf Coles, Resisting the desire for the unambiguous: productive gaps in researcher, teacher and student interpretations of a number story task, ZDM, 10.1007/s11858-017-0863-7, 49, 6, (881-893), (2017).

Tamara Fitzgerald, Laurance Robillard, Amy O’Grady, Exploring the impact of a Volunteer Shared Reading Programme on preschool-aged children, Early Child Development and Care, 10.1080/03004430.2016.1240679, 188, 6, (851-861), (2016).

Aaron M. Thompson, Heather Klemp, Anne E. Stinson, Effect of the Imagination Library on caregiver–child literacy interactions and school readiness: findings from two quasi-experimental propensity score studies, Journal of Children and Poverty, 10.1080/10796126.2016.1187587, 23, 1, (19-40), (2016).

George M. Jacobs, Willy A. Renandya, Using Positive Education to Enliven the Teaching of Reading, RELC Journal, 10.1177/0033688216661258, 48, 2, (256-263), (2016).

Frank Niklas, Caroline Cohrssen, Collette Tayler, Parents supporting learning: a non-intensive intervention supporting literacy and numeracy in the home learning environment, International Journal of Early Years Education, 10.1080/09669760.2016.1155147, 24, 2, (121-142), (2016).

Caroline Cohrssen, Frank Niklas, Collette Tayler, ‘Is that what we do?’ Using a conversation-analytic approach to highlight the contribution of dialogic reading strategies to educator–child interactions during storybook reading in two early childhood settings, Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 10.1177/1468798415592008, 16, 3, (361-382), (2016).

Robyn Wheldall, Katharine Glenn, Sarah Arakelian, Alison Madelaine, Meree Reynolds, Kevin Wheldall, Efficacy of an evidence-based literacy preparation program for young children beginning school, Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 10.1080/19404158.2016.1189443, 21, 1, (21-39), (2016).

Kristen E. Kohm, Robyn M. Holmes, Lynn Romeo, Louis Koolidge, The connection between shared storybook readings, children’s imagination, social interactions, affect, prosocial behavior, and social play, International Journal of Play, 10.1080/21594937.2016.1203895, 5, 2, (128-140), (2016).

Chuanpob Iaosanurak, Sumalee Chanchalor, Elizabeth Murphy, Social and emotional learning around technology in a cross-cultural, elementary classroom, Education and Information Technologies, 10.1007/s10639-015-9406-4, 21, 6, (1639-1662), (2015).

Frank Niklas, Caroline Cohrssen, Collette Tayler, Home Learning Environment and Concept Formation: A Family Intervention Study with Kindergarten Children, Early Childhood Education Journal, 10.1007/s10643-015-0726-1, 44, 5, (419-427), (2015).

Christy K. Irish, Seth A. Parsons, Sharing a Reading Technique With Families, The Reading Teacher, 10.1002/trtr.1411, 69, 6, (607-610), (2015).

Margalit Ziv, Marie-Lyne Smadja, Dorit Aram, Preschool teachers’ reference to theory of mind topics in three storybook contexts: Reading, reconstruction and telling, Teaching and Teacher Education, 10.1016/j.tate.2014.08.009, 45, (14-24), (2015).

Extending theory, Theoretical Models of Learning and Literacy Development, 10.1108/S2048-045820140000004005, (141-166), (2014).

Margalit Ziv, Marie-Lyne Smadja, Dorit Aram, Mothers’ and Teachers’ Mental-State Discourse With Preschoolers During Storybook Reading, Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 10.1891/1945-8959.13.1.103, 13, 1, (103-119), (2014).

, Theoretical Models of Learning and Literacy Development, undefined, (141), (2014).

Trelani F Milburn, Luigi Girolametto, Elaine Weitzman, Janice Greenberg, Enhancing preschool educators’ ability to facilitate conversations during shared book reading, Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 10.1177/1468798413478261, 14, 1, (105-140), (2013).

Peter J. Cooper, Zahir Vally, Hallam Cooper, Theo Radford, Arthur Sharples, Mark Tomlinson, Lynne Murray, Promoting Mother–Infant Book Sharing and Infant Attention and Language Development in an Impoverished South African Population: A Pilot Study, Early Childhood Education Journal, 10.1007/s10643-013-0591-8, 42, 2, (143-152), (2013).

Bridget A. Walsh, Katherine Kensinger Rose, Impact of Adult Vocabulary Noneliciting and Eliciting Questions on the Novel Vocabulary Acquisition of Preschoolers Enrolled in Head Start, Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 10.1080/02568543.2012.712085, 27, 1, (31-45), (2013).

Elefteria Beazidou, Kafenia Botsoglou, Maria Vlachou, Promoting emotional knowledge: strategies that Greek preschool teachers employ during book reading, Early Child Development and Care, 10.1080/03004430.2012.678490, 183, 5, (613-626), (2013).

Roberta Levitt, R. H. Red Owl, Effects of early literacy environments on the reading attitudes, behaviours and values of veteran teachers, Learning Environments Research, 10.1007/s10984-013-9140-z, 16, 3, (387-409), (2013).

Judith Lysaker, Clare Tonge, Learning to Understand Others Through Relationally Oriented Reading, The Reading Teacher, 10.1002/trtr.1171, 66, 8, (632-641), (2013).

Lindsay R. Dennis, Sharon A. Lynch, Nancy Stockall, Planning Literacy Environments for Diverse Preschoolers, Young Exceptional Children, 10.1177/1096250612437745, 15, 3, (3-19), (2012).

Clodie Tal, Discourse and Reflection Competencies Developed by Student Teachers through Repeated Children’s Book Read Alouds: A Multiple Case Study, ISRN Education, 10.5402/2012/308198, 2012, (1-10), (2012).

Jo Florence Fletcher, Janinka Greenwood, Michael Grimley, Faye Parkhill, Niki Davis, What is happening when teachers of 11–13-year-old students take guided reading: a New Zealand snapshot, Educational Review, 10.1080/00131911.2011.625112, 64, 4, (425-449), (2012).

Staci Jordan, Gloria L. Miller, Karen Riley, Enhancements of Dialogic Reading for Young Children With Down’s Syndrome, Young Exceptional Children, 10.1177/1096250611425025, 14, 4, (19-30), (2011).

Gayle L. Macklem, Gayle L. Macklem, Emotion Regulation Training at Tiers 1, 2, and 3, Evidence-Based School Mental Health Services, 10.1007/978-1-4419-7907-0, (107-140), (2011).

Pauline Davey Zeece, Curriculum Design Strategies in Emergent Literacy: The Role of Developmentally Appropriate Literature Selections, Early Childhood Education Journal, 10.1007/s10643-009-0360-x, 37, 5, (345-350), (2009).

Rosalind Duplechain, Ronald Reigner, Abbot Packard, Striking Differences: The Impact of Moderate and High Trauma on Reading Achievement, Reading Psychology, 10.1080/02702710801963845, 29, 2, (117-136), (2008).

Tonda Liggett, Frames of Reference: The Impact of Race on Teaching Strategy and Classroom Discussion, The Urban Review, 10.1007/s11256-008-0087-9, 40, 4, (386-402), (2008).

Katharina Voltmer, Maria von Salisch, The feeling thinking talking intervention with teachers advances young children’s emotion knowledge, Social Development, 10.1111/sode.12586.

Brittany M. Brewer, Allison Phillippe, Comprehending Character: Unlocking the Potential of Perspective‐taking, The Reading Teacher, 10.1002/trtr.2085.

Bain, J. L. (2001). Language development in children with atten- tion deficit disorder. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Univer- sity of Victoria, Canada.

Bennett, K. J., Brown, S. K., Boyle, M., Racine, Y., & Offord, D. (2003). Does low reading achievement at school entry cause conduct problems? Social Science & Medicine, 56, 2443–2448.

Bus, A. G., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Pellegrini, A. D. (1995). Joint book reading makes for success in learning to read: A meta-analysis on intergenerational transmission of literacy. Review of Educational Research, 65, 1–21.

Butler, S. R., Marsh, H. W., Sheppard, M. J., & Sheppard, J. L. (1985). Seven-year longitudinal study of the early prediction of reading achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 349–361.

Caulfield, M. B., Fischel, J. E., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Whitehurst, G. J. (1989). Behavioral correlates of developmental expressive language disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 17, 187–201.

Cohen, N. J., Davine, M., Horodezky, N., Lipsett, L., & Isaacson, L. (1993). Unsuspected language impairments in psychiatrically disturbed children: Prevalence and language and behavioral characteristics. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 595–603.

Crain-Thoreson, C., & Dale, P. S. (1992). Do early talkers become early readers? Linguistic precocity, preschool language, and emergent literacy. Developmental Psychology, 28, 421–429.

Debaryshe, B. D. (1993). Joint picture-book reading correlates of early oral language skill. Journal of Child Language, 20, 455–461.

Farkas, G., & Beron, K. (2004). The detailed age trajectory of oral vocabulary knowledge: Differences by class and race. Social Science Research, 33, 464–497.

Fujiki, M., Brinton, B., Isaacson, T., & Summers, C. (2001). Social behaviors of children with language impairment on the playground: A pilot study. Language, Speech, and Hearing Ser- vices in Schools, 32, 101–113.

Fujiki, M., Brinton, B., Morgan, M., & Hart, C. H. (1999). With- drawn and sociable behavior of children with language impair- ment. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 30, 183–195.

Giddan, J. J., Milling, L., & Campbell, N. B. (1996). Unrecog- nized language and speech deficits in preadolescent psychiatric inpatients. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66, 85–92.

Griffith, P. L., Rogers-Adkinson, D. L., & Cusick, G. M. (1997). Comparing language disorders in two groups of students with severe behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 22, 160–166.

Hart, B., & Risley, T. (1999). The social world of children learning to talk. Baltimore: Paul Brookes.

Hooper, S. R., Roberts, J. E., Zeisel, S., & Poe, M. (2003). Core language predictors of behavioral functioning in early elemen- tary school children: Concurrent and longitudinal findings. Behavioral Disorders, 29, 10–24.

Justice, L. M., & Pence, K. L. (2004). Addressing the language and literacy needs of vulnerable children: Innovative strategies in the context of evidence-based practice. Communication Dis- orders Quarterly, 25, 173–180.

Justice, L. M., & Pullen, P. C. (2003). Promising interventions for promoting emergent literacy skills: Three evidence-based approaches. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 23, 99–113.

Kaiser, A. P., Hancock, T. B., Cai, X., Foster, E. M., & Hester, P. P. (2000). Parent-reported behavioral problems and language delays in boys and girls enrolled in Head Start classrooms. Behavioral Disorders, 26, 26–41.

Linz, T. D., Hooper, S. R., Hynd, G. W., Isaac, W., & Gibson, L. J. (1990). Frontal lobe functioning in conduct disordered juve- niles: Preliminary findings. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychol- ogy, 5, 411–416.

McDonough, K. M. (1989). Analysis of the expressive language characteristics of emotionally handicapped students in social interactions. Behavioral Disorders, 14, 127–139.

Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., Tufis, P. A., & Sperling, R. A. in press. Are reading and behavior problems risk factors for each other? Journal of Learning Disabilities.

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching chil- dren to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for read- ing instruction: Reports of the subgroups (NIH Publication No. 00-4754). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network. (2005). Pathways to reading: The role of oral language in the transition to reading. Develop- mental Psychology, 41, 428–442.

Norris, J. (1995). Expanding language norms for school-age chil- dren and adolescents: Is it pragmatic? Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 26, 342–352.

Pearson Education, Inc. (2004). Read together, talk together. New York: Pearson Early Learning.

Senechal, M., LeFevre, J., Hudson, E., & Lawson, E. P. (1996). Knowledge of storybooks as a predictor of young children’s vocabulary. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 520–536.

Silva, P. A., Williams, S., & McGee, R. (1987). A longitudi- nal study of children with developmental language delay at

age three: Later intelligence, reading, and behavior problems.

Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 29, 630–640. Qi, C. H., & Kaiser, A. P. (2004). Behavior problems of low- income children with language delays: An observation study. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47,

Sutherland, K. S., & Wehby, J. H. (2001). Exploring the relationship

between increased opportunities to respond to academic requests and the academic and behavioral outcomes of students with EBD: A review. Remedial & Special Education, 22, 113–121.

Vallance, D. D., Cummings, R. L., & Humphries, T. (1998). Mediators of the risk for problem behavior in children with language learning difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31, 2, 160–171.

Whitehurst, G. J., Arnold, D. S., Epstein, J. N., Angell, A. L., Smith, M., & Fischel, J. E. (1994). A picture book reading inter- vention in day-care and home for children from low-income families. Developmental Psychology, 300, 679–689.

Whitehurst, G. J., Epstein, J. N., Angell, A. L., Payne, A. C., Crone, D. A., & Fischel, J. E. (1994). Outcomes of an emergent literacy intevention in Head Start. Journal of Educational Psy- chology, 86, 542–555.

Whitehurst, G. J., Galco, F. L., Lonigan, C. J., Fischel, J. E., DeBaryshe, B. D., Valdez-Menchaca, M. C., et al. (1988). Accelerating language development through picture book read- ing. Developmental Psychology, 24, 552–559.

Whitehurst, G. J., & Lonigan, C. J. (1998). Child development and emergent literacy. Child Development, 69, 848–872.

Whitehurst, G. J., Zevenbergen, A. A., Crone, D. A., Schultz, M. D., Velting, O. N., & Fischel, J. E. (1999). Outcomes of an emer- gent literacy intervention from Head Start through second grade. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 261–272.